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Consciencism is a book written by Kwame Nkrumah,it was published by the New York Press (1964).Kwame Nkrumah was an influencial political leader,theorist,socialist and a pan Africanist. He was the first president of Ghana after independence and a key figure of the non-aligned movement. This book depicts his personal philosophy which he termed "consciencism," he did not focus only on "African Revolution," but he gave explanation of its ideology. Nkrumah's consciencism can be described as the philosophy and ideology of attaining socialism. It formed a frame work of his political action.
In this book, he specifies three segments of the African society which are the traditional,christian and islam that coexist uneasily due to their conflicting principles.The book emphasized that African traditional society should recognise the euro Christian and Islam as experiences of the traditional African society since the principles of the capital society conflicts with our socialist egalitarianism.
furthermore,consciencism emphasized the emancipation of the African continent and this could be done by the logistic mobilization of our resources and the recognition of our egalitarianism of our society towads the attainment of our intellect. This lead Nkrumah to what he called "intellectual revolution," which meant the directing our thinking and philosophy towards the redemption of our society.
Moreover he believed in communalism which he urged Africans to take full control of their resource to develop their continent therefore he combined it with socialism which is about social ownership and democratic control of the means of production.Consciencism aimed at decolonising Africa and changing the mindset of the African people to make sure that Africans do not replace their indigenous traditions with that of the western culture.This is commendable.
However, Nkrumah's consciencism focused on the nationalist and socialist approach to address the situation of decolonisation which led to the neglect of the economic aspect of the African society. The book was also too difficult to comprehend and required a lot of time and dedication in reading.
In conclusion,Nkrumah believed that communalism and socialism share egalitarianism which is social equality in fundamental worth or social status. However,the book proposed that Africa can attain socialism by taking a step back to what he termed "Africas antecedent."